“All or Nothing: Manchester City”, a MEDIAPRO production for Amazon, nominated for Best documentary at the National Film Awards

“All or Nothing: Manchester City”, produced by the MEDIAPRO Group for Amazon Prime in collaboration with Manchester City, IMG and Film45, has been nominated for the National Film Awards in the Best Documentary category. The 8-episode documentary-series, directed by Manuel Huerga, offers a behind-the-scenes look at the historic club and its charismatic coach Pep Guardiola, in what has been a record-breaking season for the English Club. The series is narrated by Sir Ben Kingsley.

The ceremony of the fifth Annual National Film Awards, based on a public voting system, will be held on March 27 in London.

The MEDIAPRO Group is a world leader in multimedia content, specialising in content integration, production and distribution. Their products have been successful in the prime time of the main Spanish channels for over 20 years and their productions are present on all the latest platforms. The Group’s content division develops, creates, produces and distributes content of all genres and in all formats for television, cinema or exhibitions. The Group also produces content in the United States, Portugal, Argentina and the Middle East working with directors such as Woody Allen, Fernando León Aranoa, Isabel Coixet, Patricio Guzmán, Manuel Huerga, Roman Polanski, Ernesto Daranas and Gaston Duprat, among others. TV fiction from creators such as Ran Tellem, David Simon, Paolo Sorrentino, Daniel Calparsoro, Daniel Écija, Javier Olivares, Fernando González Molina, Eduardo Sacheri, Michel Gaztambide, Àlex and David Pastor, Daniel Burman and Esty Quesada.

Several of the Group’s recent projects produced for Netflix (“Edha”, “Bomb Scared”), Amazon (“Six Dreams” and “All or Nothing: Manchester City”), DirectTV (“Side Games”), Fox (“Locked Up”), Turner (“Vote Juan”) and Viacom (“N00Bees”). Currently, the MEDIAPRO Content Division is involved in projects with HBO (“The New Pope”), YLE (“The Paradise”), Turner and Disney (“Miracle Hunters”), among others. Recently, the company announced agreements with VICE Studios and Pol-ka.

mediapro_manchester

With an outstanding presence in the main film festivals, MEDIAPRO productions have won 2 Oscars and received 3 nominations, 2 Golden Globes, 1 BAFTA, 2 Independent Spirit, 1 Vulcain Prize at the Cannes Film Festival, 1 Silver Bear at the Berlinale, 28 Goya and 1 Golden Shell from the San Sebastian Film Festival.

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Ting chooses Anevia’s Genova Live encoder for new IPTV service

Ting TV will offer live TV packages with local and premium specialty channels that can be viewed on a TV or on connected consumer devices. Television services will be available to high speed internet clients via a new fiber network that is being rapidly deployed in towns and cities in the USA.

The service will allow consumers to watch HD content on Ting set-top boxes and on any connected device through the Ting TV app including most tablets, smartphones and set-top boxes such as Amazon Fire TV.

Anevia’s Genova Live, a software-based transcoder that can take advantage of hardware acceleration to provide high density, cost-effective and low power solutions for OTT and IPTV streaming, is at the heart of the new Ting TV service. Genova Live’s lower cooling and maintenance costs keep the total cost of ownership at its lowest.

In addition to Genova Live, Ting will deploy Anevia’s Genova Manager to further streamline system operations and greatly facilitate the rollout of new services across multiple locations, while maintaining homogenous system configurations. Genova Manager simplifies maintenance operations and redundancy by providing a central user interface to the compression and OTT packaging system.

Anevia’s Genova Mosaic monitoring software will also be used to concentrate the entire channel line-up on a few monitors and bring it back in IP to Ting’s headquarters. This gives TV operators a comprehensive view of the services being generated at all times. Genova Mosaic also keeps an unrelenting watching eye in the background and reports anomalies automatically.

“The personalized service offered by Anevia’s team throughout this project was instrumental in giving us the technology and solutions we needed to bring high quality TV to our clients, on time and within budget” said Michael Goldstein, Vice President of Marketing & Sales at Ting Internet.

 

According to Pierre Lauzon, Vice President of Sales, North America at Anevia: “Anevia was a natural fit for Ting Internet’s innovative IPTV platform. By providing most of the essential building blocks, Anevia is able to make a positive contribution to Ting’s modern TV head-end.”

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Kodi Video Piracy: What is the Current State of Play?

By Kevin Le Jannic, Product Manager, Security, in charge of Security Services at Viaccess-Orca.

One of the biggest video piracy threats of recent years has been the fully loaded Kodi box. An open source media player developed by the XBMC Foundation, it’s an entirely legitimate product that has been hijacked by online pirates who have used its extensible nature to add various plug-ins and add-ons that let users easily stream illegal content. Officially termed Illicit Streaming Devices (ISDs), these have been sold ‘fully loaded’, i.e. with the pirate software already installed and ready to go out of the box.

In some countries, their success has been astonishing. According to recent research conducted on behalf of the Coalition Against Piracy of the Asia Video Industry Association (AVIA), as many as 45% of consumers in Thailand are using a TV box which can be used to stream pirated television and illegal content. As a result, 69% say they cancelled some or all of their legitimate Pay-TV subscriptions, with international services marginally more susceptible than Thai ones. Perhaps more worrying than anything, that figure rises to 77% when it comes to the 18-24 age group.

Mango TV, HD Playbox and U Play are amongst the most popular of the pirate apps in Thailand, but it would be wrong to assume this is just a problem confined to Thailand. Every time you widen the focus out you come across more. As the AVIA’s Asia Video Industry Report 2019 states “Asia Pacific has some of the most egregious consumers of pirated content in the world” and while the percentage of ISD users in The Philippines might ‘only’ be 28%, given the population differences between the countries it is a similar number showing around 30 million people.

The report also highlights recent Digital TV Research data that states online TV and movie piracy worldwide will cost the content industry an estimated $37.4 billion in lost revenue this year, rising to $51.6 billion by 2022 (though it is worth pointing out that these figures don’t include sports — an increasing focus for pirate activity as illegal live streaming becomes more prevalent — or Pay-TV). In fact, while the 2022 figure is alarming, as the graph below shows this is a significant deceleration of the current trend. If the current scale of losses is projected forward the number is closer to the $60 billion mark.

piracy losses graph

Action Against Video Piracy

While rampant in some Asian countries, there are signs that the threat of Kodi elsewhere is diminishing. Partly this is as the result of the box’s increasingly unwelcome status as an attack surface for malware.

Writing in the AVIA report, Neil Gane, General Manager AVIA Coalition Against Piracy, says: “The more mainstream the piracy ecosystem becomes, the greater the risks of malware proliferation. Unfortunately, the appetite for ‘free’ or paying cheap subscriptions for stolen content, blinkers some consumers from the real risks of malicious malware infection including particularly pernicious malware such as spyware and ransomware.”

Whether this status is justified or not is a case of hot debate. Indeed, TorrentFreak has written an exhaustive and in-depth post highlighting the fact that, in its opinion at least, the threat has been overstated — at its time of writing only one documented case was on file — and is at a similar level to other devices.

That’s not to say that in the future it won’t become an issue, though, and since TorrentFreak’s OpEd at least one serious malware infection has been documented. ESET researchers recently discovered that several third-party Kodi add-ons were being used to distribute Linux and Windows cryptocurrency-mining malware, specifically mining the cryptocurrency Monero.

The top five countries affected by the threat were the United States, Israel, Greece, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands, which are also listed as the “top traffic countries” in unofficial but comprehensive Kodi add-ons stats. The outbreak started in December 2017, and while the main add-on repositories that seeded it (Bubbles and Gaia) have variously shut down or been cleaned, ESET estimates that close to 5000 devices were still running the malware as of September 2018.

Whether the claims of Kodi boxes as the malware Trojan horse in the living room are justified or not, however, despite the Asian figures mentioned above there is a definite decline underway in interest in the platform, with Google search volumes in particular shrinking 80% from their peak in 2017 to 2018.

kodi search volumes

The graph above is from Comparitech which attributes the decline to a range of interlocking factors:

  • The launch of the Alliance for Creativity and Entertainment (ACE)

Set up a coalition of some of the biggest content-owners in the business — major film studios, SVOD companies, broadcasters etc — ACE was set up with the express intent of “protecting the dynamic legal market for creative content and reducing online piracy.” It recently won its first litigation against ISD supplier TickBox in the LA courts, which it says sets an important legal precedent in effort to curb illegal piracy devices and applications.

Much of its activity has occurred under the radar, with cease-and-desist letters built upon various anti-piracy and copyright laws in relevant territories being fired off to both add-on developers and repositories. Comparitech notes that ‘dozens’ of prominent developers and development teams have either ceased functioning altogether or are now flying under the radar themselves since ACE’s formation. If they are still operating they are doing so via secure messaging apps or rotating subreddit groups and so on, with a subsequent diminishing of profile and traffic. Meanwhile, several high-profile repositories have shut down.

  • A Dish Network lawsuit against TVAddons and ZemTV

The Dish Network’s lawsuit against the ZemTV add-on and add-on library TVAddons was also launched in June 2017 and was the first legal action in the area. ZemTV specifically allowed users to illegally watch a number of Dish channels, while Dish maintained that TVAddons played a significant role in distributing it. The case against ZemTV was decided in Dish’s favour, while Dish settled confidentially with TVAddons earlier this year. During that process TVAddons relaunched with a lot of the previously problematic content purged from its servers. It has struggled to maintain the level of traffic it once enjoyed.

“We are no longer indexing certain types of add-ons as a result of legal pressure. This doesn’t mean that you can’t install whatever you’d like, it just means that we can’t index those add-ons through our platform,” it stated in April 2018.

  • Anti-piracy legislation

The EU law making it illegal to sell media devices that easily enabled multimedia piracy, such as ‘fully-loaded Kodi boxes’, was passed in April 2017. It also made it illegal to stream copyrighted material from unofficial sources. It has been mirrored in other countries, notably the UK.

  • Amazon, eBay, and Facebook bans on “fully-loaded Kodi boxes”

The concept of the fully-loaded box appears again with Amazon announcing a ban on copyright-infringing media devices in April 2017. eBay announced its own ban later on the same month, while Facebook announced its own ban in August 2018. This went further than previous bans, banning the sale of any device tag had ‘Kodi installed’, never mind pirate specific add-ons.

The Future of Kodi Video Piracy

To this list we would add the effectiveness of services such as our anti piracy protection, which detects and analyzes all Kodi streaming playlists and analyses them. The DMCA is then sent to the impacted ISP, CDN and content platforms. Continuous tracking provides automated 24/7 internet monitoring and enables manual monitoring with up-to-date reports of detailing any content leaked on the internet.

If, as Comparitech asserts, there is a closely-coupled relationship with Google searches for Kodi and levels of piracy on the device, then all this is starting to work and the past year’s downwards trend represents a definite victory for the industry. Industry pressure on legislators and its own efforts seem to be succeedeing in driving Kodi piracy underground and away from the mainstream. Data from the UK suggests that Kodi use is on the decline, with only 6% of online users watching content via it in 2018 compared to 7% in 2017.

That is not to say the threat is over . As is constantly pointed out, Kodi is just an open source platform, and new software is appearing for it all the time. TVAddons list of banned and infringing add-ons stands at 19 current and 18 abandoned (non-functional), while the latest significant threat was a new feature called Orion on popular Gaia add-on which ‘phoned home’ with streaming links scraped by end users. As TVAddons pointed out, the way it functioned meant that users could effectively be considered distributors of illegal content under the letters of the law, not just consumers.

“The worry is that by having end users automatically contribute links they scrape to the Orion database, they could be considered distributors under the law. This could open certain regular Kodi users to significant liability, possibly fines in the tens of thousands.”

Meanwhile, Kodi v18 Leia is getting ready for official release and emphasizes the XMBC Foundation’s desire for legitimacy with the addition of DRM. A Eurosport player and YouTube plugin add-ons already use it, as do unofficial Netflix and Amazon add-ons. Kodi will be hoping that those unofficial players become official ones as it seeks to attract more legitimate mainstream content and leave its checkered past behind it. And the industry will be hoping that measures that have proved effective in Europe and elsewhere can also start to gain traction in countries such as Thailand.

Read this article on Viaccess-Orca website.

The battle to reach ‘convergence 4.0’

Kuldip-Johal---Vice-President-Sales---Subscription-Broadcasting

By Kuldip Singh Johal, Vice President Sales – Subscription Broadcasting, UEI

Now, it could be at the heart of convergence, providing users with a single device with which to perform synergised functions, controlling everything from the television to your home’s temperature, security and lighting. However, with established technology manufacturers competing against smaller, yet more agile, counterparts, who will win convergence 4.0?

While there are a handful of manufacturers most of us will associate with smart home technology, many paid TV operators and telecommunication companies are turning their backs on these devices, thus creating space for some of the smaller brands to rise to the top. Not only are devices created by these big brands more expensive for paid TV operators to deploy, but they are also less adaptable for their needs. Conversely, by partnering up with smaller manufacturers to create bespoke solutions, paid TV operators can be in control of their own destiny and create their own eco-system on which they can build in the future. This is a fluidity that isn’t offered by larger branded devices where the roadmaps for convergence are already set out for them.

Solutions developed with telcos and paid TV operators in mind also allow them to have more autonomy in their approach to the market, rather than following the trends as dictated by large manufacturers. This is a key issue in convergence as with paid TV operators on side, the smaller manufacturers have the potential to tap into different insights and develop new capabilities.

Currently, many consumers are turned off by the idea of convergence due to the difficulties they face with configuration and setting up smart devices. For the average person, configuring multiple devices can be daunting and seem like it may require some engineering know-how, which can deter consumers from buying new devices or attempting to integrate them. Difficulties with configuring, discovering and controlling devices are among the biggest pain points for consumers of smart devices and is something that needs to be considered in relation to convergence.

It is vital that manufacturers and industry leaders address these pain points in order to make convergence and configuration a frictionless and simple process for the end user. This is also likely to lead to increased uptake of smart devices. Users require intuitive devices which are capable of automatically recognising new devices and help the user to configure them. However, many of the key players within the industry are yet to offer devices capable of this. Should manufacturers, and the bigger market challengers such as Amazon and Google, want to attract audiences, the need for end-to-end solutions which simplify the process of migration to the smart home for the end user needs to be considered. For example, devices should offer simplistic, voice-based processes to increase ease of use.

Additionally, the winner of convergence 4.0 will produce devices which are capable of ‘learning’ set skills. As well as being intuitive in recognising other devices, these devices must also intuit what a user requires when they perform certain commands. For example, ultimate convergence will come when users are able to ask their device to enter ‘movie mode’, for instance, and the device will not only play a movie but will also draw the curtains and dim the lights.

Voice-Remote---ConvergenceIt is our view, that as many smart devices make use of voice-control, the two issues are intrinsically linked. Therefore, to win convergence 4.0, you must also be one step ahead in the fight for the voice-assistant market. The uptake of voice-controlled devices is growing significantly with a recent study finding that 1 in 6 adults in the US now owns a voice-activated smart speaker and 65% say they wouldn’t want to go back to a life without these devices. Their popularity and ease of use show that this technology should be a key feature for the future of convergence.

Given the current difficulties associated with configuring devices, the real winner of convergence will be the company that can make integrating these devices into the home it as easy and seamless as possible. At the moment, convergence is currently being driven primarily by the market as a pre-emptive strike to anticipate the needs of consumers. While the big names currently have a monopoly on this market, convergence 4.0 could be a case of the tortoise and the hare as smaller manufacturers step up their approach to the market. With a more insightful view of the requirements of not only the user but also telecommunication companies, these brands could be better able to tailor their offerings more precisely to suit the users’ needs.

AI in Media and Entertainment: IBC2018 in Review

By Chem Assayag

Wherever you talk to broadcasters nowadays, it’s never long before the name Netflix is either dropped into the conversation or you can sense its lurking presence. The opening IBC Conference keynote was no exception either, the SVOD giant’s influence looming large as BBC Studios chief executive, Tim Davie, revealed that the ITV and BBC Worldwide SVOD service, BritBox, which launched in March in the US has just passed 400,000 subscribers.

It’s intriguing to see rival national broadcasters that compete fiercely in their own territory combine to target viewers in another country. This is the sort of distortion that Netflix is bringing to the market and Davie admitted that the same sort of collaboration might be necessary in the UK as well to scale up a SVOD service to compete against it in the future.

Another UK broadcaster, Channel 4’s COO, Keith Underwood, meanwhile argued that scale was not the be all and end all.

“Scale alone is not sufficient for success. David didn’t beat Goliath by piling on the pounds. The victory came by being agile, nimble and deploying smart technology.”

Against a backdrop of industry mega-mergers, Underwood maintained that there were huge opportunities for niche operators as long as they acted quickly to the way that the industry is being reshaped by the FAANG companies in particular.

“Distinctiveness can defeat scale,” he said.

This theme was picked up numerous times during the conference in more than one session, with possibly the most memorable metaphor for the situation being coined by Walter Iuzzolino, founder and curator of AVOD niche drama service Walter Presents.

“They [Amazon & Netflix] are in a different complementary market,” he said. “They lavish enormous amounts of money and offer everything like a supermarket, whereas we are more like a delicatessen, where you go to get something distinctive and special.”

Artificial Intelligence and Media at the Fore

The Cloud has been a big theme of past IBCs, but this year was so pervasive, so ubiquitous that you almost failed to notice it. Indeed it has become to mainstream so quickly that you only really register it when it’s not there and a rare new product on the Exhibition show floor doesn’t include it when by rights it should.

Similarly, the transition towards IP seems to have an unstoppable momentum. There are details still to be ironed out in terms of the exact migration path and network bandwidths, but with even the show’s own IBC TV channel moving to an IP production workflow these probably won’t slow the increasing speed of adoption down.

The big story this year though was Artificial Intelligence and media, which was pretty much everywhere in Amsterdam, as the benefits — or at least the potential benefits — of AI technology were pointed out at all levels of the industry.

Some of this was a bit forward-looking perhaps, such as AI predictions regarding how popular characters and plots will be with audiences feeding into a show’s development. Even one of the co-authors of BBC Research & Development’s paper ‘AI in Production’, the winner of IBC’s Best Paper Award 2018, admitted some of this was fanciful and that AI production systems would never match the quality of skilled craftspeople.

Nevertheless, as the IBC Daily reported, to date the BBC’s system, called Ed, has been used with some success to create automated footage from sports events and studio-based panel shows using simple locked off camera setups.

In fact, AI is having an increasing impact in the here and now. Endemol Shine Creative Networks chief executive, Lisa Perrin, said her group is employing AI techniques to log scenes on one of its flagship formats, Big Brother; work previously undertaken by “banks of people typing in scene descriptions and time codes.

“This technological revolution of AI is opening huge possibilities for places we couldn’t go to before and things we couldn’t see on budgets that are increasingly challenged,” she continued.

Here at VO we were contributing to the buzz surrounding the technology too, as this snippet from IBC365’s show review proves.

“Viaccess-Orca was promoting its artificial intelligence-enabled detection of service anomalies, such as content piracy incidents, that can, the company said, provide invaluable insights into the operational challenges faced by a premium content service provider.”

5G was another disruptive technology very much at the edge of many people’s thinking at the show, with content being touted as ‘its killer app’ in numerous speeches and presentations. However, one interesting subplot developing is that the telcos that will build out the 5G networks have no interest in replying the same circumstances that surfaced in the US surrounding net neutrality and saw them potentially reclassified as a utility.

“We are so far behind the OTT players we are not even at first base,” commented Matt Stagg, director of mobile strategy at BT Sport. “And we don’t want to be the dumb pipe for others.”

One more thing worth noting at the show was the rise in Android TV deployments and technologies. We were involved here too (see our press release from IBC: Wibox Launches Android TV 4K Offer on STB Secured by Viaccess-Orca) but even so the amount activity in the sector is surprising.

“I have never seen anything grow as fast as this,” said Accedo’s Fredrik Andersson at the What Caught My Eye conference session on Innovation. “The number of Pay-TV providers looking at launching on Android went from tens to hundreds in less than two years in what is normally quite a conservative market.”

Key Takeaways from IBC2018

Elsewhere, momentum built behind UHD, with South Korea even planning to switch off HD transmissions by 2027, and HDR; the Alliance for Open Media started talking about AV2 development even as some of the first AV1 implementations debuted on the show floor; VR continued its slightly bumpy path to the mass market; and IBC as a whole made a welcome embrace of diversity, increasing the number of female speakers at its conference from 14% last year to a far more representative 37% in 2018.

Last word for IBC2018 though should go to Maria Garrido, chief insights & analytics officer at global agency Havas, who anchored the IBC Audiences conference stand with a session looking at how traditional media can compete in the digital space. To summarize:

  • The industry must spend more on innovation if it is to survive increasing competition
  • “The TV industry isn’t dead – yet! It still has 34% of the pie in terms of ad spend but this will go down to 31.3% in 2021 while platforms such as mobile will grow to 30.5%.
  • “If you take out all live and sports from live TV in the US, the total audience drops 19%.
  • “More innovation is required to grab the attention of Millennials, Generation Z and Tweens. With Generation Z you have eight seconds before they are on a mobile or tablet.

Eight seconds isn’t long and if we were to predict anything following the show it is that there will be more and more emphasis from all across the industry on perfecting the experience it offers consumers during that brief period. What’s more that feels like exactly the place where AI in media and entertainment might have an increasing impact in future years. Offering the right customers the right content at the right time has never seemed more important.


About the Author: Chem Assayag

Chem Assayag is VO’s Executive Vice President of Sales and Business Development. With a strong experience in the world of digital television and content services, and during his tenure at OpenTV, the worldwide leader in interactive television, he managed operations in Europe and the Middle East, growing revenues in the company’s largest business region. Chem also led the worldwide sales, marketing, and business development functions for the MediaHighway® product line at NDS (now part of Cisco Systems). In the late 2000s he was also a key figure in Europe’s mobile TV and mobile broadcast industry, leading Qualcomm’s MediaFLO division in the region. Aside from his corporate sales and business experience, Assayag is an entrepreneur who founded, managed, and sold his own company, and has also driven a number of business startups. Chem graduated in management from EM Lyon, and holds a postgraduate degree in media management from ESCP Europe.

Read the article on Viaccess-Orca website

 

Dramatic increase in OTT drives major streaming development

Jérôme Vieron, PhD – Director of Research & Innovation for ATEME

The number one differentiator will always be the content provided. Whereas before we learnt to love the only content on offer, now we can pick and choose. As a result, the competition to provide the most compelling movies and box-sets is fierce. However, there is a further game-changer too as we also have high expectations of the quality of service provided and these have been raised even further due to various new formats including 4K/UHD, HDR and HFR.

Jérôme-Vieron
Jérôme Vieron, PhD – Director of Research & Innovation for ATEME

With this in mind, it’s not surprising that operators and technology vendors alike are focusing on ways to further enhance content delivery. As a result, this demand is powering a continuous string of innovations, especially around the issue of streaming.

The most recent of these developments embraces artificial intelligence (AI). Once the subject of science fiction, AI is now being used by global tech giants such as Amazon and Google to predict the behaviours of its users, with health organisations like the NHS also looking into the technology to help alleviate pressure from its doctors and nurses.

The broadcast industry is also seeing a more widespread adoption of AI. Now it is being used to analyse thousands of assets as part of the streaming process. In doing this, AI has been shown to save operators around 30% of content delivery costs, while also improving the quality of this delivery.

Most operators now find that traditional streaming can result in buffering and other delays. Research by Conviva shows that while watching a half-hour show, the average viewer spends less than 18 seconds waiting for a video to re-buffer, however, even this short time is too long when consumer expectations are high and the market so competitive.

The current solution within the industry looking to address this is adaptive streaming and its successor, content adaptive streaming. Adaptive streaming works by detecting a user’s bandwidth and CPU capacity in real-time and adjusting the quality of a video stream accordingly. Although the former is widely used, it does mean that for half the content the bitrate will be too high, and for the other half it will be too low. If it’s too high the content may stall and means that the content is never fully optimised.

As a result, industry pioneers such as Netflix have been working on remedying this shortfall. Netflix has been leading the way with per-title encoding and even recently announced per-shot encoding, but these are proprietary technologies and not available to other operators.

Recognising this shortfall, other developers have been working on content that adjusts the bitrates based on the complexity of content rather than just the internet connection. The result is content adaptive streaming which uses AI to compute all the necessary information, such as motion estimation, to make intelligent allocation decisions. Using a variable bitrate to reach constant quality allows bits to be saved when the complexity drops on slow scenes – using fewer profiles on easier content.

The traditional approach is to keep chunks at fixed lengths. The ecosystem usually requires chunks to start with an I-frame so that profile switches can occur between chunks, but with fixed-size chunks this implies arbitrary I-frame placement. Therefore, a scene cut before a chunking point results in a major compression inefficiency as the image is encoded twice.

Content adaptive streaming combines a scene cut detection algorithm in the video encoder with rules to keep chunk size reasonable and minimise drift, in order to prepare the asset for more efficient packaging. This not only brings cost saving benefits due to reduced traffic, storage and other overheads, but also improves the quality of experience for the consumer.

Content adaptive streaming solutions have been developed with interoperability in mind, so individual parameters such as dynamic chunking can be turned on and off. Operators also have the option to use the specific resolutions they want, even if these appear to be suboptimal to the system.

Any development that enhances quality while at the same time cuts overheads demands to be investigated further. It represents a win for the operator and a win for the viewer too – which all suggests that content adaptive streaming could be the future method of choice.